Nº 8. Dossier: Derivas intelectuales de Roa Bastos en el Centenario de su nacimiento

Este año, al cumplirse cien años del nacimiento del escritor paraguayo más reconocido internacionalmente, Augusto Roa Bastos (1917-2005), se han organizado, tanto en Asunción como en otras ciudades hiladas por el largo exilio de Roa, distintos tipos de actividades académicas y conmemorativas que sirvieron para hacer un balance del peso de su obra en la literatura paraguaya y latinoamericana.

Desde el Grupo de Estudios Sociales sobre el Paraguay, hemos participado y co-organizado algunas de ellas y nos hemos nutrido de un debate que, creemos, es necesario continuar y profundizar. Sobre todo, porque partimos de un divorcio entre los estudios paraguayos y los estudios crítico-literarios sobre la obra de Roa Bastos. Es decir, son pocos los autores e investigadores que han estudiado la obra de Roa en relación con la historia intelectual paraguaya. A su vez, la literatura paraguaya, como un proceso en el que se involucra la narrativa de Roa, se encuentra todavía ávida de análisis críticos que consideren sus características distintivas.

También, en el contexto de este Centenario, se han dado algunas publicaciones y re-ediciones. De modo que, junto con el objetivo de continuar con el debate de la obra roabastiana, sumamos, en esta edición de la Revista Paraguay desde las Ciencias Sociales, un dossier especial con cuatro ensayos sobre distintos aspectos de la obra de Roa, algunos de los cuales se han elaborado, justamente, en el marco de nuestro X Taller “Paraguay desde las Ciencias Sociales”.

Si bien, como dijimos, los trabajos de este dossier toman distintos aspectos de la obra de Roa, los cuatro coinciden en hacer eje en su rol de intelectual y en las derivas de sus posicionamientos político-intelectuales. De modo que el presente dossier destaca la pertinencia del balance sobre esta obra a partir de un aspecto puntual, su intento por constituirse como una voz de reflexión sobre la realidad y la cultura paraguayas.

En primer lugar, el artículo de Mario Castells, que elegimos para abrir el dossier desde una perspectiva literaria, hace un recorrido sobre un momento crítico en la producción ficcional de Roa, el previo a la publicación de Yo el Supremo, a partir de un material inédito: los borradores de la mítica novela Contravida, muy diferente de la que décadas después, Roa publicaría ya casi de regreso de su exilio. Estos borradores, tal como se puede concluir a partir el artículo, muestran las consecuencias en la obra ficcional de las inquietudes intelectuales de Roa. Es decir, las experimentaciones formales y lingüísticas del universo ficticio de Roa están estrechamente vinculadas a sus inquietudes en torno a cómo interpretar el mosaico cultural paraguayo.

En segundo lugar, el trabajo de Facundo Gómez reconstruye la relación intelectual entre Roa y el crítico uruguayo Ángel Rama. Relación de la que hay sobradas muestras en la obra de ambos, pero de la que aquí Gómez expone su lado menos público a través del intercambio epistolar entre ambos intelectuales. Puntualmente, a través de las cartas de Roa que Gómez cotejó en el Archivo Personal de Ángel Rama. Esta minuciosa reconstrucción acentúa la afinidad intelectual y personal entre Roa y Rama y contribuye a sedimentar las analogías teóricas que encontramos entre ellos con un material precioso que, paralelamente, Gómez contextualiza a partir de los discursos públicos de ambos intelectuales.

En tercer lugar, el artículo de Carla Benisz sobre las (distintas) articulaciones teóricas presentes en la obra ensayística de Roa, intenta aportar un panorama de Roa en tanto intelectual que pivotea sus inquietudes al calor de la coyuntura histórica. En ocasiones, las dificultades para enunciar una posición muestran, según intentamos destacar, el frágil suelo que pisa el escritor comprometido pero no como un déficit, sino como las cicatrices derivadas de los intentos de posicionarse en los lugares menos acomodaticios de la labor intelectual.

Finalmente, el aporte de Ana Couchonnal prosigue investigaciones previas de la autora sobre cómo cristalizó el discurso nacionalista paraguayo, pero, en este caso, Couchonnal expande estas reflexiones en torno a las figuras de Roa y de Bartomeu Melià, y en torno a cómo ambas tensionaron los paradigmas de dicho discurso. Esta tensión encuentra un fértil terreno de disputa en el espacio de la lengua guaraní; por ello, tanto la obra del narrador como la del lingüista se ofrecen como punto de partida para rastrear posibles variantes analíticas alternativas al discurso cristalizado.

El objetivo principal de este dossier es el de aportar documentos para la discusión de la obra roabastiana en función de que su debate no se cierre en la anécdota celebratoria, sino que nos permita abrir nuevos canales analíticos para pensar tanto su literatura como sus continuas obsesiones sobre el mito de la excepcionalidad paraguaya.

Grupo de Estudios Sociales sobre Paraguay (GESP)

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