Resultado de las elecciones en Costa Rica

Costa Rica: Segunda Vuelta Electoral

M.Sc. Pablo Morales Rivera

Profesor de Historia de la Universidad de Costa Rica

El pasado 1 de abril, domingo de resurrección para los católicos, el pequeño país centroamericano vivió su balotaje electoral para elegir a su Presidente número 48, a quien le corresponderá conmemorar el bicentenario de vida republicana de la que fuera la última provincia al sur de la antigua Capitanía General de Guatemala.

La campaña electoral, que durante los meses de octubre y noviembre se mantuvo encabezada por dos candidatos de derecha, uno del tradicional Partido Liberación Nacional y un ex Ministro, Juan Diego Castro, en un partido político alquilado parecían los favoritos. El lastre del gobierno, marcado con una gran deficiencia comunicativa y un gran escándalo de corrupción conocido como el Cementazo, no daban casi ninguna oportunidad al candidato oficialista.

Si bien el gobierno representó un cambio en algunos temas y tuvo logros, no parecía el cambio exigido por el electorado en 2014. Sin embargo, un fallo de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, vinculante para el país y que defendía la legalización inmediata del matrimonio para personas del mismo sexo, dio un giro inesperado, polarizó el país y puso a Carlos Alvarado, del gobernante Partido Acción Ciudadana (PAC) y a Fabricio Alvarado, del partido Restauración Nacional, de corte cristiano fundamentalista, quienes finalmente pasaron al balotaje.

Los contrincantes no solo compartían el apellido, sino que ambos habían estudiado periodismo en la Universidad de Costa Rica, sin embargo, mientras el discurso del candidato oficialista se centraba en el respeto a los derechos humanos y la laicicidad del Estado, el segundo lo hacía a través del discurso bíblico de la restauración espiritual por la vía democrática y la defensa de la familia y los valores religiosos tradicionales.

Mientras todas las encuestas daban la victoria al candidato neopentecostal, que recibía un numeroso apoyo de los sectores más empobrecidos por el neoliberalismo de los últimos treinta años, el candidato oficialista contaba con una cada vez traída a menos capa media urbana, de la cual mucha se temía, estuviera vacacionando el día de la segunda vuelta.

Mientras Carlos Alvarado ganaba más apoyo de los votantes de otros partidos, Fabricio lo hacía sobre los votos de los indecisos, llegando a un empate técnico. Desde el Frente Amplio, se veía con desconfianza la adhesión de varios políticos neoliberales a ambas opciones, desde el Social-cristiano Rodolfo Piza al candidato de Gobierno, como de allegados del ex candidato de Liberación Nacional al candidato opositor.

Finalmente la izquierda termino dándole un apoyo crítico al PAC. El resultado final le daría una holgada victoria a Carlos Alvarado con un 60% de los votos frente a un 38% de su contrincante. Carlos Alvarado será el Presidente electo más joven en más de un centenario de vida republicana y lleva a un dirigente sindical magisterial, así como a una economista afrodescendiente en las vicepresidencias, la primera afro costarricense en ocupar ese cargo.

Sin haber resuelto casi ningún debate, más que las reglas de juego democráticas y laicas,  el Presidente electo convocó a los partidos con representación parlamentaria a un gobierno de unidad nacional que se conformará en los próximos días.




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